Minerva of Peace by Elihu Vedder, 1897.  Mosaic. Library of Congress, Washington, D.C.

The goddess has set aside her shield and helmet, but she remains vigilant with her spear still ready in her hand.

A statue of Nike holds a palm branch, symbol of peace, and a

laurel wreath, symbol of victory. The scroll lists fields of learning, including Architecture,Education, Commerce, Mechanics, Government and History.

Beneath the mosaic is an inscription from Horace’s Ars Poetica, translated as: “Not unwilling, Minerva raises a monument more lasting than bronze.”

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